Modern Automation Technologies Professional Magazine

      1 2021

#   1/2021

Measurement of Effective Voltage and Current Values

In some cases, measuring effective voltage and current values, especially with high accuracy, can be a nontrivial task. The article provides theoretical information that explains the subtleties of such measurements, and describes industrial measurement modules from Dataforth.

Temperature Measurement Using a Thermocouple

The article discusses the basic operating principles of a thermocouple, its advantages, drawbacks and limitations. Using Dataforth devices as an example, the article shows how to accurately take temperature measurements using a thermocouple.

Temperature Stabilization System Using the Regul R200 PLC

The article describes a temperature stabilization system using the Regul R200 PLC and demonstrates the simplicity of setting up the control software.

      4 2020

#   4/2020

One of the Methods for Choosing a Processor for a Computer System

A number of difficulties arise in the design of computer systems with proprietary software. In particular, it is advisable to start by estimating the platform performance required for the operation of a special application. An incorrect estimate can lead to underperformance or unnecessary costs. The article discusses a method for calculating processor performance for a specific computational task.

      1 2020

#   1/2020

Modern processor architectures

The article briefly describes modern processor architectures, lists their features and advantages.

      4 2019

#   4/2019

PID regulation simplified

PID control is used in automatic process control everywhere. Most of today's industrial controllers have an embedded mechanism that implements PID control. But for the successful application of this powerful tool it is necessary to clearly understand its action mechanism. This article provides some initial information on PID regulation in a popular form.

      3 2019

#   3/2019

iKey: reliability in any conditions

When designing of fail-safe solutions for severe service conditions, no compromises are acceptable: sometimes, not only the enterprise performance, but human life and health depend on their reliability. For this reason, it is necessary to consider not only the reliability level of computing electronic equipment and switching devices, but human-machine interface devices as well, because fast response of operators and the system operated by them depends on them in particular. Giving preference to iKey keys and indicating devices with their quality proven by time and the experience of many users, you can be sure in your selection.

Reliability of redundant disk arrays

Despite the improvement of solid-state drives, hard disk drives (HDDs) are the cheapest and most popular type of information storage. Being technically complicated devices, HDDs do not provide overall safety from faults and failures, which may result in the loss of the data. The article examines the failure pattern for hard (spindle) disks. The main parameters of reliability for individual disks are presented, and the formulae were determined based on them for the calculation of redundant disk array reliability parameters built up on their ground.

      3 2018

#   3/2018

Fundamentals of structural and functional organization of embedded and stand-alone fuzzy control systems

Continuing the theme "Use of fuzzy control to optimize power consumption", the article focuses on the basic principles of the structural and functional organization of embedded and stand-alone fuzzy control systems for process equipment.

Implementing TCP and UDP sockets based on FASTWEL CPM723-01 controller using CODESYS V3 development environment

The article describes software implementation of TCP and UDP sockets based on FASTWEL CPM723-01 controller in CODESYS V3 development environment. TCP and UDP sockets are used for data exchange between devices employing TCP/IP protocol suite. Also discussed are the features of stream and datagram sockets as well as their software architecture on the CPM723-01 controller usingthe SysSockets library.

Special features of power supplies and programmable loads for industry and research

The article provides a review of programmable power supplies and electronic loads. Using EA Elektro-Automatik products as an example, the article describes the characteristics of these devices for professional users as well as the scope for industrial applications.

      2 2018

#   2/2018

Methods for creating production rules for optimization of energy consumption

Continuing the theme “Use of fuzzy control to optimize power consumption”, the article describes the methods and software/hardware tools to develop and test the production rules in an attempt to achieve the efficient mode of power consumption in process equipment when employing fuzzy control algorithms.

Security for the APCS operator workstations

Over the last few years cyber attacks have targeted industrial systems, signaling a need for integrators and customers to focus more on improving the information security of automated process control system (APCS). The article addresses the issues related to the security enhancement of workstations to prevent hidden retrieval of information or creation of the unauthorized access channels.

Electrical equipment grounding as the main protection principle against HEMP

The article examines the differences between lightning electromagnetic pulses (LEMP) and high-altitude nuclear electromagnetic pulses (HEMP or NEMP). It has been shown that these differences do not allow the direct transfer of experience on lightning protection (LEMP) to protection against HEMP. The author questions the efficiency of electronic equipment grounding as the primary protection against HEMP, even though this method of protection is specified in all regulations and standards.

      1 2018

#   1/2018

Data center cooling technologies: the search for best practices

An increasing number of data centers results in rapid growth in their computing capacity and power consumption, and a significant portion of power consumed by data centers is spent on cooling equipment rather than computation. The arrangement of data center cooling is the most important consideration to boost energy efficiency. The article analyzes various cooling schemes for equipment.

Fuzzy system to control power consumption for the industrial equipment

The article covers the concepts for design and implementation of a fuzzy system to control power consumption for the industrial process equipment. Also included is an example of the arrangement of efficient power consumption for the existing electric drive of a hydro power plant.

Business continuity and financial losses caused by downtime

The article examines the key concepts of information availability and business continuity. Also discussed is the assessment of IT operational risks, including systems, applications and data. The article shows how to calculate the potential losses incurred by a company due to IT system downtime.

      4 2017

#   4/2017

Contactless switching devices in automation and electric drive systems

Contactless switching devices are actuators commonly used in modern industrial automation and electric drive systems. The article discusses three key aspects of their application: the features of active-inductive loads switching, the methods and means of protection against abnormal conditions and the possibility of integration into the structure of the automated complexes.

Object-oriented programming in IEC 61131-3 standard

The article describes the features of object-oriented programming using the languages defined in the third edition of IEC 61131-3 and shows how classes and objects can be created in software suite for programming PLCs and embedded CODESYS V3 controllers.

      2 2017

#   2/2017

Perspective concepts in conductive cooling of single-board computer systems through the example of the Schroff Interscale C case

The conduction cooling is widely used when designing the highly reliable single-board computers. The efficiency of this cooling method may depend on many factors. In most cases the development of each device requires an individual approach, and this has an effect on the price. However, the new Schroff developments in this area allow for overcoming certain constraints of the traditional solutions and simplifying the replication of the new computer systems.

Customized iKey rugged keyboard for Durabook R11 tablet

The article is about the customized rugged keyboard from iKey for the Durabook R11 tablet. Also discussed are the benefits of using rugged keyboards in industry in conjunction with ruggedized PC tablets.

Cyber security checklist for automation technicians

The article offers a cyber security checklist based on the incidents and information security best practices for the automated process control system. This checklist will be useful for automation technicians who might know nothing about information security. This will better protect the automated process control system against cyber-attacks and also help save on material costs.

      1 2017

#   1/2017

Liquid cooling for high-end servers

The article examines in detail the stages of development of a special liquid cooling system for high-load servers using the CAE analysis. Also discussed are the test methods and a prototype system as well as a test bench specifically built for this purpose. The article compares the characteristics of a theoretical model and a physical working prototype.

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Import substitution in industry

The import substitution program defined by the government is reflected in a number of legislative acts, and it is actively being pursued. But at a practical level, businesses are facing some tough issues when implementing this program. The article covers such problems and shows possible ways to solve them. Also included are examples of products that meet the import substitution requirements. These are the products manufactured by FASTWEL, one of the leaders in the domestic market of automated process control systems.

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Keyboard evolution: from a typewriter to iKey

The article gives an overview of the technologies and products from iKey, a manufacturer of rugged keyboards and input devices from Texas. Particularly, the examples provided in the article include the new products-hybrid input devices. Also discussed is the forecast of development trends in human-machine interface industry.

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      4 2016

#   4/2016

Specifics of information security for industrial automation systems as per FSTEK order No. 31

The article covers specific features of information security for industrial automation systems as well as issues related to the practical application of Russia's FSTEK [the Federal Service of Technical and Export Control] Order No. 31 in circumstances where appropriate methodological guidelines do not exist. Also included are the specific provisions of Russia's FSTEK Order No. 31 as applied to a particular type of automation object.

Generation of daily emergency reports in ReportWorX

The article describes the implementation of a system generating daily reports on emergencies that occur in process systems at controlled facilities and sending reports by email. The system has been implemented utilizing the ReportWorX component from the ICONICS BizViz package. This system uses information from the ICONICS AlarmWorX64 Logger database.

      3 2016

#   3/2016

End-of-life: how the components of the automated process control system complete their life cycle

Occasionally, the hardware manufacturers "scare" customers and integrators by the term "end-of-life", which is hard to understand. But what actually happens to the components of automation systems when their life cycle ends? Do different manufacturers use different processes? The article provides the answers to these and other questions and helps specialists to make the right choice.

Implementation of SMS text message announcement system for personnel using ScriptWorX64

The article shows how to arrange the SMS text messaging system for communicating information to the operators using ScriptWorX64, a component in ICONICS GENESIS64 suite. Also discussed are the development milestones and the source codes for the scripts that have been developed.

      2 2016

#   2/2016

ERP/MES integration: a bird’s eye view

The article addresses issues related to the integration between the ERP and MES systems to create an integrated management control system for an enterprise. Also included are an analysis of the automation levels and systems, a determination of systems integration tasks and their solutions and a conclusion regarding the practicability of building an enterprise information environment employing the various types of automated systems used according to their intended functionality.

Implementation of Modbus RTU server using FASTWEL interface module and CoDeSys programming software

The article examines an integration between FASTWEL CPM713 Modbus TCP PLC and a Weintek operator panel that supports the Modbus protocol in Serial Modbus (RTU/ASCII) using the NIM742 interface module and ready-to-use library in CoDeSys environment adapted for FASTWEL.

Smart rack solutions for data centers

The article offers AIC's innovative approach to building computer complexes and data storage systems and reviews a new range of SMART RACK solutions.

      1 2016

#   1/2016

Integrating the SCADA-systems with the enterprise control systems

It is hard to imagine any modern industrial enterprise that can do without a computer-aided control system for utilities as well as process control systems. But how can these types of systems "become friends"? What questions might the integrators have? Are there any typical solutions? This article provides answers to some questions and helps the engineers implement this integration.

      4 2015

#   4/2015

Russian computers quality recipes, or AdvantiX from within

The article is devoted to the analysis of industrial PC market development trends in Russia. Also discussed are the pros and cons of two different approaches to building a computer of a required configuration: an order of ready-made solutions, and self-assembly. The article provides examples of how to build sophisticated and unique PCs in accordance with the client's technical specification.

Creating a user interface – evolution from visible to invisible

The article describes the evolution of the user interface - from visible to invisible. Also discussed are the importance of the user requirements traceability and prototyping. The article examines possibilities in user interface development such as voice and gesture control and gives examples of how to use new types of interface to control complex technical facilities.

iKey – an expert in data input

This article presents some iKey models of keyboards and pointing devices optimized for use in specific markets. Also discussed are the benefits of using the company's products in various applications.

Automatic regulators and advanced functions devices

Creating more sophisticated control systems for various technological processes and facilities requires controllers and devices with advanced functionality. The article describes the operating principles of such controllers: smooth switching of the controller when changing from remote (manual) to automatic control mode or vice versa as well as from external to internal task with supervisory control; limitation of the individual components of the controller output signal for the upper and lower limits and their protection against overloading. The use of these controllers and devices in the existing systems enhances product quality and reduces production costs.

      1 2015

#   1/2015

Human-oriented approach towards the design of automated object visualization systems

This article covers the advantages and the key principles of a human-oriented approach in designing the visualization systems for the automated processes. Also discussed are some principles of usability improving interaction between a user and human-machine interface (HMI). The paper describes three levels of operator situation awareness associated with the operators' ability to assess the current state of the system.

NSI trackballs: quality enhanced by innovations

In this article, the NSI trackballs are used as an example to describe the data input devices, their design features and principles of operation. Also discussed are the types of sensors employed in trackballs as well as the pointing device and keyboard operation schemes. The article presents an overview of the new NSI products and evaluates the benefits associated with the use of the devices in various applications.

      2 2014

#   2/2014

Automation product ratings – results for the year of 2013

The flows of information in today's world are rapid and superabundant, and no one can digest all of that information. The public information and analytical materials which are the quintessence of studying any issue help to determine the direction for a detailed analysis and save time and effort. This article is based on a review of materials published in Control Design - a highly respected journal for the automation professionals - and presents the results of automation product ratings for the year of 2013.

      1 2014

#   1/2014

About technological protection

The author suggests improvement of understanding and formation of a technological protection subsystem (TP) based on the structural scheme and rules of its construction. He gives a new name to the subsystem - a technological alarm and protection system (TAPS) with clearly defined terminology. It is advisable to develop normative documents based of TAPS for prevention of accidents, which can increase safety of dangerous production facilities.

Resistive temperature transducers

The article gives an overview of resistive temperature transducers wiring schemes, presents calculation formulas and comparison of characteristics.

      4 2013

#   4/2013

Strain gauge transducers and principles of use in measurements

The article deals with the concept for design of strain gauges, various wiring schemes, sources of measurement errors and ways of reducing these errors.

      2 2013

#   2/2013

AdvantiX inside and outside: IPC-ATX-7220-A7/W7 operator workstation

The article discusses an AdvantiX commercial products-IPC-ATX-7220-A7/W7 operator workstation produced at NPF DOLOMANT CJSC. Also included is a description of an industrial computer, its design features and specific characteristics which make it possible to use this product for industrial applications.

      1 2013

#   1/2013

Getting the most out of your vendor's tech support

The article reveals some hidden aspects of tech support workflow, knowledge of which can help customers dramatically speed up the issue resolution process. Also, practical recommendations on the tech support requests format are made, to enable maximum issue resolution efficiency.

      3 2012

#   3/2012

Thermocouples: principles of application, types, measurement errors

The article provides a brief overview of publications and standards on thermocouples used in industrial automation. Also included is a table showing the measurement range for the thermocouples of various types. The article also discusses the sources of measurement errors.

      2 2012

#   2/2012

Commentary on ratings of hardware for process control system

The article describes the subjective nature of most of the ratings, and on this basis, it analyses the Control Design magazine ratings for hardware of industrial automation systems for the year 2011.

      1 2012

#   1/2012

Summation of measurement errors in automation systems

Process variables measurement error is normally calculated knowing the metrological characteristics of the gages, transducers, analog input modules and the software error. This raises the question of how to calculate the said error components correctly. The article discusses methods for solving this question based on the analysis of the nature of errors and implementation of the regulatory documents on metrology.

      4 2011

#   4/2011

Iron key to control the IEEE 802.11a/b/g/n wireless networks

The article addresses an issue related to the control of network based on the 802.11a/b/g/n wireless access points. The article offers a solution for integrated management and configuration of equipment and analyzes its operational characteristics and benefits.

      2 2011

#   2/2011

Dynamic error in measuring channels of process control system

The article describes physical reasons and methods for evaluating dynamic error in measuring channels of a process control system. It is shown that in critical cases dynamic errors may far exceed static ones.

      1 2011

#   1/2011

Mechanical structures of the 19" series: Schroff plug-in units

The article discusses the design features of plugin units offered by Schroff - one of the leading European manufacturers of the enclosures for the electronics and electrical industry.

Fieldbus controllers and Fieldbus-Ethernet converters: from capturing attention to practical use

The article is intended to serve as a practical guide to build Fieldbus and RealTime Ethernet networks based on Hilscher equipment. As exemplified by the PROFIBUS and Modbus protocols, the equipment adjustment process employing, a universal system configuration tool, is illustrated.

      4 2010

#   4/2010

Modbus and Modbus TCP protocols and networks

The article provides an analytical review of literature on the Modbus and Modbus TCP protocols and networks.

Serial interface servers: step-by-step instruction

The articles discusses a specific class of communication devices known as "serial interface servers", their characteristics, tasks solved with the aid of these servers, adjustment and application examples.

      3 2010

#   3/2010

HART-protocol: general information and design concept of the HART-protocol based networks

The article offers an analytical review of literature and current HART-protocol standards and industrial HART-protocol based networks.

(pdf NaNk)
      2 2010

#   2/2010

Development of the project for the VIPA Touch Panels using Movicon 11 software

The article describes recommendations and examples of configuring VIPA Touch Panels using Progea Movicon 11 software.

      1 2010

#   1/2010

The pointing devices: evolution in progress

The article demonstrates — with an example of the NSI products — the designs of the modern pointing devices. Their advantages and disadvantages are briefly discussed in the context of industrial applications.

Increase of accuracy by means of multiple measurements. Part 2

The factors limiting an increase of accuracy by means of averaging the results of multiple measurements are analyzed. Formulas and graphs for estimating the limits of increase of accuracy in the presence of typical sources of an error are given.

      4 2009

#   4/2009

Methods of integration the image from IP video cameras into the screen shot of SCADA system

The problem of integrating an image from IPvideo cameras into the screen shot of SCADAsystem is considered. Features of IPvideo cameras are described, and methods of creationand use of ActiveX components in SCADA as well as the example of Web interfaceprogrammed by the author of the article, are presented.

(pdf 692k)

Increase of accuracy by means of multiple measurements. Part 1

The factors limiting an increase of accuracy by means of averaging the results of multiplemeasurements are analyzed. Formulas and graphs for estimating the limits of increaseof accuracy in the presence of typical sources of an error are given.

(pdf 612k)
      2 2009

#   2/2009

Design of the operator interface for the FASTWEL I/O distributed control system based on the Maple Systems panels

The article describes an example of designing the system based on the operator'spanel with the Maple Systems Series HMI5000 touch screen and FASTWEL I/O PLCwhich exchange data via the Modbus RTU and Modbus TCP/IP protocols.

Wireless local area networks. Part 2

The article offers an analytical review of literature on the wireless data networkswhich are used in the automation of the production processes. A simple solution ofa number of the tasks -- whose solution was extremely difficult and expensive inthe past -- was made available due to the wireless networks.

      1 2009

#   1/2009

Configuration of the VIPA modules with the STEP 7 Simatic Manager

The article gives some recommendations on the work with the VIPA programmable logic controller using the STEP 7 Simatic Manager software from Siemens.

Wireless local area networks. Part 1

The article offers an analytical review of literature on the wireless data networks which are used in the automation of the production processes. A simple solution of a number of the tasks -- whose solution was extremely difficult and expensive in the past -- was made available due to the wireless networks.

      4 2008

#   4/2008

Hardware redundancy in industrial automation. Part 3

Redundancy is practically the only way for providing failsafe operation or functional safety of the automatic systems. The article gives an overview of the well-known «hot» and «warm» redundancy methods as well as the voting method performed well in the industrial automation systems.

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      3 2008

#   3/2008

Advantech I/O modules connection to ICONICS GENESIS32 HMI/SCADA using ActiveX controls

The article describes basic principles of using ActiveX controls library ActiveDAQ Pro for connection Advantech I/O modules PCI-17xx, MIC-37xx and USB-47xx series to ICONICS GENESIS32 HMI/SCADA.

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Hardware redundancy in industrial automation. Part 2

Redundancy is practically the only way for providing failsafe operation or functional safety of the automatic systems. The article gives an overview of the wellknown "hot" and "warm" redundancy methods as well as the voting method performed well in the industrial automation systems.

read on-line
      2 2008

#   2/2008

Hardware redundancy in industrial automation. Part 1

Redundancy is practically the only way for providing failsafe operation or functional safety of the automatic systems. The article gives an overview of the wellknown "hot" and "warm" redundancy methods as well as the voting method performed well in the industrial automation systems.

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      1 2008

#   1/2008

A good engineer should be able to tell two cables apart

The article may help an engineer of the automated process control system to better understand an enormous variety of cables and wires and make the right choice of the products that he often has to deal with. For this purpose, the article provides a detailed description of the materials and design of the instrument cables and data transmission cables and covers the issues of their impact on the operating and economic characteristics of the design solutions.

PID controllers: issues of implementation. Part 2

The previous articles of the author devoted to the PID controllers described their design philosophy and modifications. This paper continues the discussion and gives an overview of the methods for the manual calculation of the parameters, automatic adjustment and adaptation of the PID controllers.

      4 2007

#   4/2007

PID controllers: issues of implementation. Part 1

The previous articles of the author devoted to the PID controllers described their design philosophy and modifications. This paper continues the discussion and gives an overview of the methods for the manual calculation of the parameters, automatic adjustment and adaptation of the PID controllers.

      3 2007

#   3/2007

Specific features of the ADAM-5510E/TCP controller programming

The article unveils some peculiarities of the control system programming on ADAM-5510 and ADAM I/O modules.

      1 2007

#   1/2007

PID controllers: design philosophy and modifications. Part 2

The article considers the philosophy of designing PID controllers, which have found wide application in process automation. Attention is also given to controllers for transport-delay systems, as well as to fuzzy and neuronet PID controllers.

Technique for testing the operation of Fastwel processor boards under QNX operating system

A technique for testing the compatibility of various versions of QNX operating system with application-specific Fastwel processor boards is described. The algorithms and scripts of test programs are presented. An example of stepwise assembling the image of QNX Momentics operating system and an embedded file system along with Photon graphic shell is given.

      4 2006

#   4/2006

PID controllers: design philosophy and modifications. Part 1

The article considers the philosophy of designing PID controllers, which have found wide application in process automation. Attention is also given to controllers for transport-delay systems, as well as to fuzzy and neuronet PID controllers.

Application of fieldbus systems in hazardous areas

The article synopsizes the present-day concept of designing distributed networks to be used in hazardous areas and describes a method of estimating the intrinsic safety of the RS-485 interface.

      3 2006

#   3/2006

Grounding in industrial automation systems Part 2

The second (last) part of the article describing grounding approaches used to provide stable operation of industrial automated systems and protect personnel against electrical shock.

Universal system software for Fastwel AI Modules

Analog I/O modules have found wide application in industrial automated systems, specifically, in data acquisition/processing systems. In this article, an advanced approach to programming AI16-5A and AIC123 Fastwel analog I/O modules is considered. Particular attention is given to the software that is delivered free of charge together with the modules.

      2 2006

#   2/2006

Climate systems for cabinets

The article will help engineers to choose equipment providing a necessary microclimate in an electrical cabinet. Different ways of extra heat removal are discussed, and the thermal balance in the cabinet is analyzed. An adequate selection of equipment is exemplified, and practical recommendations for equipping the cabinet with a cooler are given.

Object-oriented extensions of IEC 61131-3 standard

The extension of IEC 61131-3 standard is being extensively discussed at all conferences on industrial automation worldwide. The author of the article has put forward a number of ideas, which either have been already introduced into the standards or are the subject of hot discussion of IEC working groups. Here, the author presents CoDeSys as a platform for testing new software products.

Grounding in industrial automation systems

The issue at hand is grounding used in industrial automation systems for provision of their reliable functioning and protection of personnel against electric current shock.

      1 2006

#   1/2006

Sliding mode use in regulation

The article presents a description of sliding mode control algorithms for discrete control devices. Variations of such algorithms are discussed, from ideal object regulator basic algorithm, to real aperiodic object optimal regulation algorithm.

      4 2005

#   4/2005

Selection of hardware automation facilities for hazardous industrial projects

The article reports on important practical questions, which the processes control system integrators face during automation of hazardous industrial objects.

      3 2005

#   3/2005

UPS optimum choice

The purpose of the article is to help engineer in finding an optimum solution for equipment protection depending on its type and function. The devices for protecting equipment from power supply interference are reviewed as well as the recommendations on power supplies choice and configuration.

Creating user DLL access to universal OPC server from Fastwel

The article is dedicated to the assembler user library (DLL) created for Fastwel universal OPC server. The general principles of assembler programming in Windows as well as the recommendations on compiler and integrated development environment (IDE) selection guideline are given. The practical example of writing test DLL is illustrated.

The efficiency of using variable-frequency electric drive at sewage pumping stations

The purpose of the article is an attempt to define the estimation criteria of efficiency for the variable-frequency method applying.

      2 2005

#   2/2005

CoDeSys 3.0 — new level of PLC programming tools

Ten years ago 3S-Smart Software Solutions Company has first introduced its IEC 61131-3 programming tool to the European market. It was constantly being developed during the last few years. Today 3S presents absolutely new tool called CoDeSys 3.0.

      1 2005

#   1/2005

EuropacPRO subrack configuration features

      4 2004

#   4/2004

Iconics' technical support: new software

      3 2004

#   3/2004

Promising energetic electronics devices of the Interpoint Company

The article reports on challenging models of the Interpoint DC/DC converters for military and space applications. You can find information about their basic technical characteristics, requirements and standards they meet, comparison with the similar modules from another manufacturers. The special attention is paid to their radiation-standing characteristics and in this connection some circuit and design solutions, which are realized in new models, are described. It is also indicated that the Interpoint DC/DC converters can be used in domestic developments of special techniques.

      2 2004

#   2/2004

Thermoelectric temperature converters: practice, evolution

This article describes the main types and application areas of the thermoelectric temperature converters. It reviews the key features of converters based on noble metal, refractory metal, base metal, and of the cable thermal converters.

      1 2004

#   1/2004

Absolute rotary encoders with SSI interface

This article discusses absolute rotary encoders with SSI (synchronous serial interface). General information is provided on the SSI interface, including the principles behind its operation and the issues involved in connecting to, and monitoring, the interface. Using products from Pepperl+Fuchs GmbH (Germany) as examples, the author illustrates the various ways that these encoders can be built and provides practical information on their application.

A secondary power supply source using electricity from two electric mains

Based on their many years of experience with the development and comparative analysis of products from different manufacturers, the authors make the case for their choice of a structure for a secondary power supply source and primary power transformers. The backup power system described in this article uses power from two electric mains, is highly reliable and can be used for critical applications.

Principles of ensuring electrical compatibility of measurement devices. Part 2

      4 2003

#   4/2003

Ultrasonic sensors for control systems

Continuation of the series of articles on ultrasonic sensors. The author describes problems with these sensors and ways to improve their effectiveness in practical applications, citing the capabilities of the sensors from Pepperl+Fuchs and examples of how they are being used.

Principles of ensuring electrical compatibility of measurement devices

Calibration equipment

      3 2003

#   3/2003

Normalizing converters from Dataforth

      2 2003

#   2/2003

Shield casings for electronic devices

Intrinsic safety shunt-diode Zener barriers: selection criteria and application

      1 2003

#   1/2003

Measurement unit for determining the tension in rolled sheets

This article describes the IND-7681 measurement unit, designed to determine the tension of rolled sheets in series 1700 cold rolling continuous mills. The inclusion in the unit of unique magnetoanisotropic sensors and industrial controllers from Fastwel made the IND-7681 system highly accurate and reliable, producing considerable savings after its implementation.

(pdf 261k)

Ultrasonic sensors for control systems

This article presents the lineup of ultrasonic sensors from the German firm Pepperl+Fuchs, describing their basic functions and certain characteristics of their application, as well as citing concrete examples of the use of ultrasonicd sensors.

(pdf 321k)

I-SFT displays: basic features and installation

(pdf 273k)
      4 2002

#   4/2002

Level-control radar systems

Protecting automation equipment and systems from high voltage power surges

Fundamentals of fiber optic technology

      3 2002

#   3/2002

The FDT/DTM specification

Corrosion resistance in electrical equipment casings

      2 2002

#   2/2002

Intrinsically safe remote process interface (IS-RPI)

      1 2002

#   1/2002

Open-frame, surface-mountable DC/DC

The author reviews the open-frame, surface-mountable DC/DC converters from Artesyn Technologies. The article provides an overview of their basic features and offers recommendations for their application. 

Structure of a measuring system based on passive sensors

      4 2001

#   4/2001

Parallel port instead of a video card

Measuring pressure in automated systems

      3 2001

#   3/2001

Programming logical integral designs in Fastwel modules

      2 2001

#   2/2001

Eliminating impermissible interference on electronic equipment from electric power networks

      1 2001

#   1/2001

Protecting against interference between sensors and connection wires in industrial automation systems

The effectiveness of implementing a system with variable-frequency drives

This article intends to demonstrate the benefits of implementing variable-frequency drives at facilities with pumping and ventilation equipment. Following an analysis of the success factors involved in implementing such actuators, the article cites the data acquired from actual facilities over two to five years of operation.

      4 2000

#   4/2000

Introduction to the History of Industrial Networks

Practical use of industrial networking technologies is considered in the article and exemplified by popular standard solutions.

      3 2000

#   3/2000

Electric Circuit's Intrinsic Safety

The basic aspects to be taken into consideration by explosion protection "Intrinsic Safety" are stated in the article. Some principles of estimation the intrinsic safety are exemplified, where electric circuits have elements with linear and nonlinear volt-ampere characteristics.

Implementation of Cyrillic Set Support by Octagon's LCD Series

WAGO Clamps for Switch Boxes

      2 2000

#   2/2000

Replacement of Control Computer's Modules without Power-Down

About some technical solutions related to reliability and maintainability of control computers, with emphasise on the hardware issues of hot swapping modules.

      1 2000

#   1/2000

Hazardous Areas, Types of Explosion Protection

Recent publications devoted to the issues of data acquisition safety in explosive areas, as well as to existing types of explosion protection by electrical equipment, has brought about a flood of response, positive and negative remarks, too. This article is intended to answer some of arisen questions, but also to highlight key points in comparison of different types of explosion protection.

Serial Interfaces for Display Units

Intelligent Sockets of Dallas Semiconductor

      4 1999

#   4/1999

FFT (Fast Fourier Transformation) Program for Automation Units Based on TMS-320 Processor

Application Hints for BXA15, BXA 30 and BXA40 Mid-Power DC-Converters

      3 1999

#   3/1999

Development of Easy Monitoring Systems on Dial-Up Lines

      2 1999

#   2/1999

Intrinsically Safe Circuit as a Method of Implosion Protection

The article is dedicated to the issues of implosion-proof equipment using the "intrinsically safe circuit" method.

Octagon Systems' CPU Boards and Y2K Issue

      1 1999

#   1/1999

Temperature Measurement: Theory and Practice

      4 1998

#   4/1998

Universal 19" Sub-block Series EuropacPRO

Electroluminescent Flat Matrix Displays: Features of Interfaces and Variants of Connection

Advantages of Open-Frame DC/DC-Converter Modules

      2 1998

#   2/1998

Explosion Safety Issues

Main methods of providing the explosion safety of equipment are described; European, Russian and North American standards have been compared. The primary emphasis has been laid on the intrinsic safety method.

Peculiarities of Subsystem of Power Consumption Control for Modern Embedded Processor Modules

A system for power consumption control of the modern microprocessor modules for embedded application is described.

Configuring of Cabinets PROLINE Series

Some features of configuring of the 19”-cabinet enclosures for industrial and networking applications are described.

      1 1998

#   1/1998

Correction to the harmonics of the incoming flow in low-power networked power sources

      4 1997

#   4/1997

Reference materials on the American wire gauge standard

The reliability of current transformers, with a quantitative evaluation

      3 1997

#   3/1997

Interfaces for sequential data transmission. The EIA RS-422A/RS-485 standards

The author sets forth the basic requirements of the EIA RS-422A/RS-485 standards and examines certain aspects of implementing monitoring and metering networks based on these standards.

      2 1997

#   2/1997

Computers and triphase electrical networks

Computers: proper power is the guarantee of health

Components from Dallas Semiconductor

A method for rapid reconfiguration of a multi-machine control system

The authors examine a method for rapidly reconfiguring a dual-machine computing system based on MicroPC components. This method involves installing in each unit a freeze alert that informs the functioning machine that it is rebooting its processor in the event that the computer freezes or needs to be reset (when the reset signal is sent through the network), which allows for a rapid change in the configuration of the computing system based on a built-in algorithm.

      1 1997

#   1/1997

Standard Dimension-Types of Enclosures for Electronic Equipment

Variety of Interface Buses

      1 1996

#   1/1996

Contacts, Contacts

Possible Failure Reasons by CMOS Components in Industrial Automation Equipment

IP-Levels of Cases, Cabinets and Enclosures