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Review
Technology

Use of light emitting diodes in lighting solutions: history, current reality and future

The article is devoted to the use of light emitting diodes (LEDs) as light sources for lighting applications. The article describes historical aspects of the development of LED technology and gives an overview of stateoftheart products from key producers. Also discussed are results of the introduction of LED lighting in various facilities. The article provides an assessment of the efficiency of such implementations and the potential to use the LED solutions in lighting systems.


Embedded Systems

Choosing an embedded OS for your project

The article gives an overview of typical embedded software project requirements and constraints, and provides a mapping between them and major characteristics of embedded OSes. A unified set of embedded OS comparison criteria is suggested, with a few examples of OS selection for a particular case, giving VxWorks, QNX, Wind River Linux, Windows Embedded and RTOS-32 as possible OS choices.


ADLINK Technology CompactPCI Hardware. Part I

Part I offers an overview of the basic model range of the 3U CompactPCI processor modules from ADLINK Technology, Inc., a Taiwan manufacturer. The article describes the main characteristics of solutions based on the CompactPCI architecture and gives a historical background of the company.


Industrial Networks

Simplify your life with fieldbus in Zone 2

In Zone 2 hazardous areas, energy limiting ignition protection type Ex nL (nonincentive) has been available to fieldbus users for years paving the way for instrumentation in an increasing number of installations. Compared to protection type Ex i (intrinsic safety), Ex nL has contradictory requirements that have led to ambiguity regarding correct dimension and construction of electrical circuits rather than the expected savings in installation and maintenance cost. The new directive "Ex ic intrinsic safety" is replacing Ex nL as of 2011. This article explores the improvements that can be realized by combining this new standard with FOUNDATION fieldbus H1 and PROFIBUS PA.


System Integration
Metallurgy

Cathode deposit cut quality control and monitoring in the Electrolysis automated control system

The article discusses the implementation of an optimization algorithm for improving one of the quality parameters of production of rare refractory metals by electrolysis in molten salts as a part of the Electrolysis automated control system.


Oil & Gas Industry

Experience in upgrading process control system at the oil sludge processing unit

The article describes a technological process employed in the Oil Sludge Processing Unit at Gazpromneft-ONPZ JSC. Also discussed is an upgrade of the process control system of this Unit based on the modern hardware and software. The article gives reasons for preference of these means and presents the architecture and functionality of the upgraded system.


Construction Materials Industry

Use of the PCS7 control system and CEMAT application in cement industry

The article describes the control system of a kiln for burning the raw mix and making clinker when producing cement. This system has been introduced at VolynCement OJSC (Zdolbunov, Ukraine).


Buildings Automation

Remote monitoring, automatic diagnostics and control system for a complex of buildings of the Executive Office of the System Operator of the Unified Energy System of Russia

The article presents hardware and software solutions created when developing and commercializing the supervisory control system for the utilities systems of a complex of buildings of the Executive Office of the System Operator of the Unified Energy System of Russia. It describes a system approach to solving an extensive task - from the development of the user interface differentiated by groups of personnel as well as an appropriate security policy and evaluation of data reliability up to the use of inhouse ActiveX elements. The project is a current typical solution for the tasks of dispatching control of life support systems for critical facilities such as the energy complex control stations, centers for processing banklevel data or data of federal significance and other similar facilities.


Power Engineering

Upgrade of the telemechanic system in the Surgutskaya SDPS-2, a branch of OGK-4 OJSC

The article describes the structure and function of the telemechanic system introduced in the Surgutskaya State District Power Station2, a branch of OGK4 JSC. Also included is illustrative material that gives the full picture of the system. The similar Siemens hardwarebased complexes are widely used in Russia.


Food Industry

Upgrade of process control system of the finished product shop

When revamping the existing enterprises, the key requirements are minimization of idle time during the commissioning period and reduction of capital expenditures. The article presents the hardwaresoftware solutions whose implementation allowed for fulfilling these requirements when upgrading the process control system of the finished product shop at a breadbaking complex.


Development
Food Industry

Use of the state-of-the-art automation technologies for the development of process control system for a dairy factory

The article describes an experience in using the Siemens stateoftheart developments (APF TP libraries) for the food industry within process control system project for a dairy factory performed by NPO Elevar CJSC. Also discussed are the main stages of the development, use of the virtual plant model based on PHMIE and the basic hardware/software utilized in the process control system.


Hardware
Networking Equipment

New horizons of the wireless Ethernet: 300 Мbit/s from the air

The article provides a historical overview and covers the advantages and specific features of WiFi IEEE 802.11n standard. Also included is a review of the industrial equipment that meets the family of IEEE 802.11 standards.


Dynamic error in measuring channels of process control system

The article describes physical reasons and methods for evaluating dynamic error in measuring channels of a process control system. It is shown that in critical cases dynamic errors may far exceed static ones.